Surveying and Soil Investigation
We provide expert services in the field of land surveying, specialising in environmental, highway, airfield and land development schemes. We have diverse experience in working on various industrial projects in Iraq and overseas. We also provide mapping, volumetric analysis and engineering survey control, all of which complement large and small scale topographic surveys in both the public and private sector. Backed up with the latest GPS, CAD, infra-red, laser equipment and technology, a high quality service helps us to maintain a portfolio of longstanding clients. Survey and geographic data is often the start point of a project. The correct professional attention will minimise risks and ensure correct dimensional control.
Soil investigation is of prime importance in the construction industry. It is required before constructing any new structure to avoid failure of foundations at a later stage. Bearing capacity of the soil and nature of the soil is to be ascertained to determine whether the stability of the foundation can be obtained. This is required because foundation failures in structures are practically irreparable.
Soil investigation is gaining increasing popularity and people are learning from failures. We insist on a certificate from a structural engineer for soil investigation of every property under development. Such investigation is not yet followed in rural areas for low-rise structures, and it will have to be made popular by educating consultants and people about technical requirements and financial benefits of soil investigation.
Soil investigation is of utmost importance in any construction project. In most developed countries, soil investigation for grass root development projects is mandatory, and is carried out by expert laboratories. In Iraq, on many projects of small magnitude, consultants decide the safe bearing capacity of soil by mere observation and experience. This is highly inaccurate, and the safe bearing capacity so assumed is either on the higher side or on the lower side of the true value.
In the first case of the assumed SBC being on the lower side, the structure starts settling and becomes unsafe for use in a short time. In the second case, the foundation becomes over-safe and hence uneconomical. It is proved that soil investigation, if carried out, even in the smallest project, can result in safe and economical structures.
Factors that determine the feasibility of soil for railway, road, airport and sea link projects. Swelling index, bearing capacity, liquid limit, plastic limit, MDD, find maximum compaction are generally the tests performed in railway and road projects. Soil improvements will have to be taken to overcome deficiency. This usually occurs in the following areas: In case of higher roads, slope stabilisation will have to be achieved by using geo-membrane or rubble nets. In the case of black cotton soil swelling takes place which has to be rectified by providing band drains. In cases where no structure exists but the load is substantial on the soil below, e.g. construction of container yards, the soil below needs to be strengthened. The latest technologies and innovations in soil investigation.
Almost all the latest techniques available internationally in soil investigation are being made available. There are several laboratories having automated soil testing equipment. These equipment reduce the possibility of human errors and improve dependability of results substantially. here are certain tests which require reading to be taken intermittently over a period of seven days. This will not be possible unless the machine is fully automated and computerised. By finding out safe bearing capacity by methods such as plate loads test, core cutter, standard penetration test. Secondly, by piling - end bearing piles will be used in case of high loads. Thirdly, in the case of expansive soil, swelling index is to be found out.
Problems faced in soil investigation.
In soil investigation, whenever we get big boulders while boring, it is difficult to find out original rock level. To get the original rock level, we shift the location of boring rig or we continue with the boring till the actual rock level is obtained. In CBR, some times the 5 mm penetration CBR value is greater than the 2.5 mm penetration CBR value. We shift the location of testing to get the correct CBR value.
Success of these investigations is due to integrity, accreditation of testing facilities, speed of testing and technical competency. Specialised services include services for a new construction, assessment of existing structures, investigations and failure analysis, testing and instrumentation expertise, construction materials evaluation, repairs and rehabilitation, heritage conservation and research and development.